TR90 Level 2 Eastern Black Sea Region consists of Artvin, Giresun, Gümüşhane, Ordu, Rize and Trabzon provinces. According to the 2011 Socio-Economic Development Index (SEGE) study, Trabzon ranks 31st, Rize 34th, Artvin 44th, Giresun 52nd, Ordu 61st, and Gümüşhane 62nd in 81 provinces. When the index values and development priorities of the provinces are considered, the policies to be implemented in order to increase the welfare level of each of the provinces in the Region and their contribution to the regional development differs.
In the TR90 region, inter-sectoral mobility of production factors such as capital and labor is limited. On the other hand we can say that the sectoral dominance in the TR90 region has developed in favor of the service sector with the development of tourism and that the share of agriculture has not changed significantly due to the continued dependence of hazelnut and tea on the economy of the region.
The TR90 region produces lower added value than the country in general. It is seen that the service sector stands out in the distribution of the added value produced in the Region by sectors and produces approximately three times more value added than industry and agriculture. The main reasons for the low share of industry in total gross value added are; The number of industrial enterprises in the Region is low and the value added capacity of the existing industrial branches is based on low technology or medium technology. The fact that the industry cannot be diversified and based on a few specific areas such as hazelnut, tea, mining and apparel production in general is another reason for the low share of the industry in total gross value added.
In the TR90 region, “Manufacture of food products ”,“ Other mining and quarrying ”, “Manufacture of other non-metallic products”, “Manufacture of rubber and plastic products ”, “Manufacture of wood and mushroom products”, “Manufacture of machinery and equipment”, “fabricated metal products” and “furniture manufacturing” stands out in terms of the number of firms; in the terms of employment, “Manufacture of food products ”, “Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products”, “Manufacture of clothing”, “Other mining and quarrying”, “Manufacture of rubber and plastic products ”,“ Mining of metal ores ”, “Manufacture of wood and mushroom products”, “Manufacture of machinery and equipment nec ”,“ Furniture manufacturing ”and” Manufacture of fabricated metal products” sectors stand out.
There are a few successful firms in the region that manufacture and export products with higher added value such as; gun industry, automotive industry, shipbuilding industry, medicine and pharmacy, despite having mainly low value added sectors such as hazelnut, tea, garment and mining. Although “mature clustering” is observed in the food sector, shipbuilding and garment sectors are also suitable for clustering activities as well. Apart from food and beverage manufacturing in the region, the garment sector shows a competitive potential. Due to the relatively low cost of incentives and labor force and logistic advantages, it increases the competitiveness of the apparel industry in Ordu and Giresun provinces. In addition to this,with the existing knowledge and production opputunities, the shipbuilding industry, jewelery and gun industry have the potential to shine amongst others with the help of R & D and technological capacity building interventions.
Increasing the value added in manufacturing sector or moving to high value added sectors with the help of successful management, ensuring and preserving high product quality and specialization in the production of local products that can be branded are the main areas that should be given priority for the development of the regional manufacturing industry.
AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK
Farmers in the region exhibit small-scale economic structure, also agriculture animal husbandry are not the primary livelihood of many farmers. Therefore, specialization on agriculture and animal husbandry cannot be carried out.The land structure is fragmented and small. The inclined terrain prevents mechanization. Productivity is reduced due to family-type business, Specialization in both crop production and animal husbandry including aquaculture cannot be achieved.
The region has significant potential in the field of fruit growing. Especially in Artvin and Gumushane yields are above average compared to rest of Turkey. Tea, kiwi and hazelnuts are the most important agricultural products of the region. Most of the hazelnuts and tea fields should be rehabilitated as they have completed their economic life. Quality problems and labor costs in tea sector,fluctuations in the amount supplied for hazelnuts, insufficient post-harvest enterprises in kiwifruit negatively affect the export of these products.
Due to insufficien duration of sunshine, only greenhouse activities can be carried out in the region for poultry.
In terms of feed requirement in aquaculture and animal husbandry, dependence to the outside is extremely high. Moreover, the aging population and the migration of young people in the region lead to a gradual decline in livestock activities. Marketing of agricultural products is another important problem. Different products cannot be grown or grown into the economy due to the lack of an appropriate market or the knowledge of how to market, how to grow the product, how much profit will be obtained when the product is grown or how the product will be processed. Due to the lack of production planning, there is dependence on hazelnut and tea farming in the region, additional products and additional income generating models cannot be applied, and since the raw material cannot be supplied to the industry in a sustainable manner, the food processing industry cannot develop.
Efficient planning cannot be made due to the lack of knowledge of marine stocks in aquaculture and the lack of inventory studies of non-wood forest products in forestry. Although the products are of high quality, they cannot be marketed effectively because they are not registered and branded with geographical registration system. Marketing opportunities can be improved through diversification of processed products.
TR region receives the 3.1 % of the total shares of general consumption around Turkey,and the percentage the region receives from the total hotel and restaurant expenditure in Turkey is 2% (TUROFED, 2011). Comparing with the other regions in Turkey,the income coming from the tourism sector isnt enough. The share hotels and restaurants receive from the expenditures made in the region is around 3%.
Most of the tourists coming to TR90 prefers to visit Trabzon. It is inevitable that Trabzon will be recognized as an important tourism destination in the region as important tourist centers such as Sümela Monastery and Uzungöl and the number of tourists coming to the Region for religious reasons has increased in recent years. In addition, the availability of the airline, which is frequently used for transportation to the Region, makes a significant difference in the number of tourists visiting Trabzon compared to other provinces in the Region. As indicated in the Eastern Black Sea Tourism Master Plan (2010); Approximately 1/3 of the arrivals in the region are by Trabzon Airport; the rest is by road. The main road entrance is in the direction of Samsun.”
Although the total number of tourists in the TR90 Region was determined as 4.5 million people in 2012, these values do not accurately reflect the total number of tourists coming to the region, Repeated counts cause wrong estimation of the tourist number as well. This situation adversely affects the planning studies related to tourism in TR90 Region. Although the number of tourists coming to the TR90 Region is not known exactly due to repeated counts, the number of tourists coming to the TR90 Region can be compared between 2005 and 2012, as it is calculated by similar methods.
In terms of the number of foreign tourists visiting the region, Trabzon ranks first and Rize ranks second. When the number of foreign tourists is evaluated by provinces; The tourists coming to the Trabzon mainly visit Sümela Monastery and Uzungöl; and Ayder Plateau in Rize. Artvin is preferred by eco-tourism and nature tourism by foreign tourists. TR90 Region is located below the average of length of stay compared to other provinces of Turkey. The basis of this situation is that the tourism activities in the TR90 Region cannot be diversified sufficiently and the tourism infrastructure has not been developed sufficiently in the Region.
Considering the occupancy of accommodation facilities in the region,it is lower than the average rate of Turkey, especially the calculations made according to the number of foreign tourists shows that they spent the least amount of time in eastern blacksea region. As a matter of fact, in the Eastern Black Sea Tourism Master Plan (2010), we can see that there has been an increase in the number of tourists coming from the Middle East and Arab countries. As in Turkey, transportation of tourists to this region is mainly by air.
There are many tourism potentials in the Eastern Black Sea Region that can be developed outside the nature tourism and eco tourism areas. For example; Zigana Tourism Center in Gümüşhane, Çakırgöl, Süleymaniye Winter Sports Center, Çambası and Perşembe Plateaus in Ordu, Ayder in Rize, Bektaş Plateau in Giresun and Kafkasör in Artvin have important potential for developing winter tourism. Besides these; Çoruh River, Harşit Valley, Fırtına Valley and Melet Stream come to the fore in terms of water sports. Wildlife Development Areas (YHGS) in the Region are important for the development of hunting tourism in the Region. Photo safari, paragliding, hiking, mountaineering are other types of tourism that can be developed in the Region.
The region has significant potential for biomass and wind power generation in addition to the existing hydraulic and thermal energy resources. Regarding the evaluation of biomass energy, hazelnut and tea residues with strong production base in the Region, pellet production and tree species that can grow rapidly in the Region such as alder trees are potential local energy sources for TR90. Ordu province also has a high level of usable wind energy potential.
The strengths of the current status of accessibility in the TR90 region, which support national transport objectives; The region is located on international trade and transport corridors, the presence of free zones and the developed food sector, multimodal transport facilities and the multiplicity of road transport companies are available.The region, which is developing in terms of infrastructure, will accelerate its development relatively with the mentioned public investments and will be an important center especially in east - west transportation. The weaknesses of the region in terms of logistics development can be listed as working with idle capacity of the ports, the obstacle to the north-south transportation of the land structure, the lack of modern storage facilities and the lack of qualified labor force to work in the logistics sector. Skilled labor supply will increase with the strengthening of the cooperation between the regional universities and industry. Infrastructure deficiencies can be solved by encouraging qualified foreign investments.
ENVIRONMENT AND URBANIZATION
TR90 region is below the limit in the areas of; air pollution index, the amount of sulfur dioxide, particulate matter amount compared to Turkey.TR90 Region also has a water potential which can be considered quite rich compared to Turkey. The main streams of the Region are; Çoruh, Melet, Kelkit and Harşit. The region contains three of the structures of the 26 basins in Turkey. These basins are; Eastern Black Sea Basin, Coruh Basin and Yesilirmak Basin.
Considering waste management on the basis of TR90 Region, it is known that most of the provinces have wild storage, and in some provinces, waste is irregularly disposed at the seas or streams. Although there are regular landfills in some of the provinces of the region, landfills are not sufficient.
The lack of systematic and planned construction of urban and intra-regional transport networks is a problem for the Black Sea cities, which currently tend to be linear growth models. If a more detailed explanation is needed, there is a concentration in coastal areas in terms of access to and provision of urban services, while inadequate provision of urban services and difficulties in access to urban services are observed in urban sub-centers towards the inner parts of the city. When the urban transportation networks are examined, it is seen that the transportation connections in the north-south direction have not developed sufficiently even in urban side.
In the provinces of the region, it is difficult to construct urban transport models as intermodal transport systems. One of the main reasons for this is topographic barriers. In addition to the undeveloped urban transportation axes in the north-south direction, the fact that the transportation systems developed with East-West axis mostly concentrate on one main artery causes the urban focal points created in the city to put pressure on the coastal regions. Another phenomenon observed in the provinces of TR90 Region is ; The buildings reflecting the historical and cultural texture of the city cannot be considered as attraction centers. In general, urban attraction centers could not be established in TR90 provinces and could not be supported with the necessary landscape elements. In the Black Sea cities, the “main square” understanding isnt developed as well.